Version 18.04.5 Release Date: August 13, 2020
NOTE: This distro comes on a USB 2.0/3.0 flash drive. This version of Ubuntu is only available as a 64 bit version.
18.04 reaches the End of Standard Support in May of 2023, companies that have deployed devices with this LTS need to take action. Staying on 18.04 EOL distribution is a security risk that companies can’t afford.
Codenamed "Bionic Beaver", 18.04 continues Ubuntu's proud tradition of integrating the latest and greatest open source technologies into a high-quality, easy-to-use Linux distribution. The team has been hard at work through this cycle, introducing new features and fixing bugs.
Under the hood, there have been updates to many core packages, including a new 4.15-based kernel.
The 'main' archive of Ubuntu 18.04 LTS will be supported for 5 years until April 2023.
Ubuntu 18.04 ships with a v4.15 based Linux kernel, enabling the latest hardware and peripherals available from IBM, Intel, and others. The 18.04 kernel delivers new features inherited from upstream, including:
We also see notable Ubuntu specific achievements with:
As of 18.04 release, OpenJDK 10 is the default JRE/JDK. Once OpenJDK 11 reaches GA in September 2018, it will become the default in 18.04.
OpenJDK 8 has moved to universe and will remain available there for the life of 18.04, to provide migration time for packages, custom applications, or scripts that can't be build with OpenJDK 10 or 11. OpenJDK 8 will be updated in 18.04 until Ubuntu 16.04 LTS reaches EOL in April 2021.
In Ubuntu 18.04 LTS, gcc is now set to default to compile applications as position independent executables (PIE) as well as with immediate binding, to make more effective use of Address Space Layout Randomization (ASLR). All packages in main have been rebuilt to take advantage of this, with a few exceptions.
Only "main" component enabled after install
/etc/default/grub.d/50-curtin-settings.cfg overwrites GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT
Install failed on disk previously used for ZFS
The next generation Subiquity server installer, brings the comfortable live session and speedy install of Ubuntu Desktop to server users at last.
N.B., If you require multipath, full-disk encryption, or the ability to re-using existing partitions, you will want to continue to use the alternate installer which can be downloaded from http://cdimage.ubuntu.com/releases/18.04/release/ As of 18.04.1, the Subiquity server installer now supports LVM, RAID, vlans, and bonds.
ifupdown has been deprecated in favor of netplan.io and is no longer present on new installs. Backend configuration on Ubuntu Server by default is provided by systemd-networkd.
LXD is the system container manager that ships with all Ubuntu servers.
Ubuntu 18.04 includes the all new LXD 3.0 release, some of the highlights include:
A new external tool called lxd-p2c is also available to turn existing systems into LXD containers.
QEMU has been updated to the 2.11.1 release.
Among many other changes, fixes around Meltdown/Spectre are included. Since fully utilizing these mitigations needs more than just an upgrade, it is recommended to read details at the qemu.org blog post.
QEMU in Ubuntu 18.04 now has rdma support enabled as over the past year much unification in the rdma-core project has occured.
Migrations from former versions are supported just as usual. When upgrading it is always recommended to upgrade the machine types allowing guests to fully benefit from all the improvements and fixes of the most recent version.
The packaging now builds libvirt storage drivers as pluggable libraries. This slims down the installation requirements but some drivers of less general interest will now be found in universe. (ex: gluster, sheepdog, zfs). On the other hand that means that a few formerly integrated features like rbd or zfs now might require you to install the package after upgrade e.g. in this case libvirt-daemon-driver-storage-zfs.
Ubuntu includes 17.11.x the latest stable release branch of DPDK.
By the new Stable Release exception for DPDK future stable updates to 17.11.x will be made available to Ubuntu 18.04
Open vSwitch has been updated to 2.9.
In Ubuntu 18.04 chrony will replace ntpd as the recommended server for the NTP protocol.
The comparison among ntp servers by the chrony maintainers may interest some users looking to see a high level reason why this change was made. It does lack the rather new and not yet completely ready ntpsec, but otherwise is a fair analysis.
For simple time sync needs the base system already comes with systemd-timesyncd. Chrony is only needed to act as a time server or if you want the advertised more accurate and efficient syncing.
Going along with this change, ntpd has been demoted from main to universe. ntpd will continue to work but will only receive best-effort security maintenance. When upgrading to Ubuntu 18.04 it is highly recommended to migrate to chrony if you had set up ntpd before.
The version was updated to 18.2. Notable new features include:
New cloud support: IBMCloud and HetznerCloud now have official datasources and OpenTelekom is now recognized by cloud-id
OpenNebula: Improve network configuration support.
The version was updated to 18.1. Notable features include:
Add support for installing remote sources that are a filesystem image
Improved device teardown of dirty devices to support re-deployment
Default config now automatically tars curtin logs upon error using new curtin collect-logs command.
storage: accept filesystem mount options
The version was updated to 2.4b2. Notable features include:
SSSD was updated to version 1.16.x and its secrets service is now enabled. Previously it was disabled because it required the http-parser library which lived in Universe, but a successful MIR brought it to main so SSSD could link with it.
The defaults for autofs related configuration settings changed in SSSD 1.14.0 (see https://pagure.io/SSSD/sssd/issue/2858). If you are upgrading from SSSD 1.13 in Xenial, you might have to explicitly specify all ldap_autofs_* settings in your sssd.conf to match your data in LDAP.
These are the defaults, based on the setting of ldap_schema:
nisMap (rfc2307, autofs_provider=ad), otherwise automountMap
ou (rfc2307), automountMapName (rfc2307bis, ipa, ad)
nisMapName (rfc2307, autofs_provider=ad), otherwise automountMapName
nisObject (rfc2307, autofs_provider=ad), otherwise automount
cn (rfc2307), automountKey (rfc2307bis, ipa, ad)
cn (rfc2307, autofs_provider=ad), otherwise automountKey
nisMapEntry (rfc2307, autofs_provider=ad), otherwise automountInformation
The vfs module aio_linux was removed from the samba-vfs-modules package
nginx was updated to version 1.14.0. New features include the mirror module, HTTP/2 push, and the gRPC proxy module.
PHP was updated to version 7.2.x.
Apache was updated to version 2.4.29. Additionally, HTTP/2 support is now enabled in 18.04.
landscape-client has been ported to Python 3 and is now available to install on the default image.
New enable-fips-updates command to enable a special FIPS repository with non-certified updates for FIPS enabled systems.
improvements for IBM z14,z14 ZR1,LinuxONE Rockhopper II and LinuxONE Emporer II
s390-tools major version upgrade to v2.3.0
cryptsetup rebase and enhancements in support of dm-cryp
protected key support for dm-crypt
TOD-Clock Epoch Extension Support
DASD multi-queue support and block layer discard support
Improved memory handling
support for new crypto hardware CEX6S
AP bus kernel API for KVM
CPACF enhancements and acceleration for AES GCM
HiperSocket connections enhacements
parted update for fdasd/vtoc
opencryptoki rebase for EP11 and ECC enhancement
lock optimization enhancement
libica upgrade for z14 and ECC support and to use PRNO-TRNG to seed SHA512-DRBG
auto detect layer2 setting in qeth driver
Kernel support for STHYI/LPAR
rebase libpfm4 for z13/z13s CPU-MF hardware counters
Ubuntu 18.04 includes the latest OpenStack release, Queens, including the following components:
OpenStack Identity - Keystone
OpenStack Imaging - Glance
OpenStack Block Storage - Cinder
OpenStack Compute - Nova
OpenStack Networking - Neutron
OpenStack Telemetry - Ceilometer, Aodh, Gnocchi, and Panko
OpenStack Orchestration - Heat
OpenStack Dashboard - Horizon
OpenStack Object Storage - Swift
OpenStack Database as a Service - Trove
OpenStack DNS - Designate
OpenStack Bare-metal - Ironic
OpenStack Filesystem - Manila
OpenStack Key Manager - Barbican